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Culture plays a significant role in the development of a nation. Every nation has got its own culture and with its distinguishing values on culture varies from others in terms of values vis-a-vis language. In this context, Baloch culture is known as one of the beautiful cultures in the world, which has been proved to be one of the oldest and strongest cultures of the world by archaeologists showing the researches of Iranian and French survey teams.
Baloch culture is opposite to the general perception about it. Though Balochistan is an area of barren lands, deserts and mountains, the Baloch culture is full of traditions, arts and crafts. Balochi embroidery is one of the most popular arts and crafts which are done by the females. Baluchistan is also known for its tribes and festivals. Another distinct feature of Baloch culture is the storytelling tradition. Poets and story tellers are highly respected in Baloch culture.
Balochistan occupies the very southeastern-most portion of the Iranian Plateau, the setting for the earliest known farming settlements in the pre-Indus Valley Civilisation era, the earliest of which was Mehrgarh, dated at 7000 BC, within the province.
Balochistan marked the westernmost extent of the Civilisation. Centuries before the arrival of Islam in the 7th Century, parts of Balochistan was ruled by the Paratarajas, an Indo-Scythian dynasty. At certain times, the Kushans also held political sway in parts of Balochistan A theory of the origin of the Baloch people, the largest ethnic group in the region, is that they are of Median descent.

In 654, Abdul Rehman ibn Samrah, governor of Sistan and the newly emerged Rashidun caliphate at the expense of Sassanid Persia and the Byzantine Empire, sent an Islamic army to crush a revolt in Zaranj, which is now in southern Afghanistan. After conquering Zaranj, a column of the army pushed north, conquering Kabul and Ghazni, in the Hindu Kush mountain range, while another column moved through Quetta District in north-western Balochistan and conquered the area up to the ancient cities of Dawar and Qandabil (Bolan). It is documented that the major settlements, falling within today's province, became in 654 controlled by the Rashidun caliphate, except for the well-defended mountain town of Qai Qan which is now Kalat.
During the caliphate of Ali, a revolt broke out in southern Balochistan's Makran region. In 663, during the reign of Umayyad Caliph Muawiyah I, his Muslim rule lost control of north-eastern Balochistan and Kalat when Haris ibn Marah and a large part of his army died in battle against a revolt in Kalat.


In the 15th century, Mir Chakar Khan Rind became the first Sirdar of Afghani, Irani and Pakistani Balochistan. He was a close aide of the Timurid ruler Humayun, and was succeeded by the Khanate of Kalat, which owed allegiance to the Mughal Empire. Later, Nader Shah won the allegiance of the rulers of eastern Balochistan. He ceded Kalhora, one of the Sindh territories of Sibi-Kachi, to the Khanate of Kalat. Ahmad Shah Durrani, founder of the Afghan Empire, also won the allegiance of that area's rulers, and many Baloch fought under him during the Third Battle of Panipat. Most of the area would eventually revert to local Baloch control after Afghan rule.


During the period of the British Raj from the fall of the Durrani Empire in 1823, four princely states were recognised and reinforced in Balochistan: Makran, Kharan, Las Bela and Kalat. In 1876, Robert Sandeman negotiated the Treaty of Kalat, which brought the Khan's territories, including Kharan, Makran, and Las Bela, under British protection even though they remained independent princely states. After the Second Afghan War was ended by the Treaty of Gandamak in May 1879, the Afghan Emir ceded the districts of Quetta, Pishin, Harnai, Sibi and Thal Chotiali to British control. On 1 April 1883, the British took control of the Bolan Pass, south-east of Quetta, from the Khan of Kalat. In 1887, small additional areas of Balochistan were declared British territory. In 1893, Sir Mortimer Durand negotiated an agreement with the Amir of Afghanistan, Abdur Rahman Khan, to fix the Durand Line running from Chitral to Balochistan as the boundary between the Emirate of Afghanistan and British-controlled areas. Two devastating earthquakes occurred in Balochistan during British colonial rule: the 1935 Quetta earthquake, which devastated Quetta, and the 1945 Balochistan earthquake with its epicentre in the Makran region.


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Balochistan contained a Chief Commissioner's province and four princely states under the British Raj. The province's Shahi Jirga and the non-official members of the Quetta Municipality opted for Pakistan unanimously on 29 June 1947. Three of the princely states, Makran, Las Bela and Kharan, acceded to Pakistan in 1947 after independence. But the ruler of the fourth princely state, the Khan of Kalat, Ahmad Yar Khan, who used to call Jinnah his 'father', declared Kalat's independence as this was one of the options given to all of the 565 princely states by British Prime Minister Clement Attlee.
Kalat finally acceded to Pakistan on March 27, 1948 after the 'strange help' of All India Radio and a period of negotiations and bureaucratic tactics used by Pakistan. The signing of the Instrument of Accession by Ahmad Yar Khan, led his brother, Prince Abdul Karim, to revolt against his brother's decision in July 1948. Princes Agha Abdul Karim Baloch and Muhammad Rahim, refused to lay down arms, leading the Dosht-e Jhalawan in unconventional attacks on the army until 1950. The Princes fought a lone battle without support from the rest of Balochistan. Jinnah and his successors allowed Yar Khan to retain his title until the province's dissolution in 1955.


The climate of the upper highlands is characterised by very cold winters and hot summers. In the lower highlands, winters vary from extremely cold in northern districts Ziarat, Quetta, Kalat, Muslim Baagh and Khanozai to milder conditions closer to the Makran coast. Winters are mild on the plains, with temperature never falling below freezing point. Summers are hot and dry, especially in the arid zones of Chagai and Kharan districts. The plains are also very hot in summer, with temperatures reaching 50 °C (122 °F). The record highest temperature, 53 °C (127 °F), was recorded in Sibi on 26 May 2010,[31] exceeding the previous record, 52 °C (126 °F). Other hot areas include Turbat and Dalbandin. The desert climate is characterised by hot and very arid conditions. Occasionally, strong windstorms make these areas very inhospitable.


The Baluch are Muslim, mostly Sunni, but also including members of the Zikr i sect. Zikr is (pronounced "ZIG-ris" in Baluch) are estimated to number over 750,000. They live mostly in southern Pakistan. They are followers of a fifteenth- century mahdi, an Islamic messiah, called Nur Pak (Pure Light).The Baluch do not support the idea of a religious nation that underlies national policies put in place by Pakistani governments in the 1990s.


The people belonging to Baloch tribe speak balochi language. Balochi language is an ancient language. Its roots are traced back to Iranian branch of Indo- European family. It has resemblance with languages such as Sansikrat, Avesta, Old Persian and Phalavi, which now a days are said to be as dead languages. This tribe is further divided in to
o Rind o Lashar o Marri o Jamot o Ahmedzai o Bugti o domki o Magsi o Khosa o Rakhashani o Dashti Umrani o Nosherwani o Gichki o Buledi o Sanjarani o Khidai
The tribe has a head known as sardar , the sub divided tribes also have heads known as Malik or Takarior Mir . These tribe heads are members of districts and local Jirgas.


As of 2008 it was estimated that there were between eight and nine million Baloch people living in Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan. They were subdivided between over 130 tribes. Some estimates put the figure at over 150 tribes, though estimates vary depending on how subtribes are counted. The tribes, known as taman, are led by a tribal chief, the tumandar. Subtribes, known as paras, are led by a muquaddam.

Five Baloch Tribes Derive

Five Baloch tribes derive their eponymous names from Khan's children. Many, if not all, Baloch tribes can be categorized as either Rind or Lashari based on their actual descent or historical tribal allegiances that developed into cross- generational relationships.This basic division was accentuated by a war lasting 30 years between the Rind and Lashari tribes in the 15th century.


The Baloch, believed to have originally come from Arabia or Asia minor, can be divided in to two branches: the Sulemani and Mekrani as distinct from the Brahvis who mostly concentrate in central Balochistan. Among the eighteen major Baloch tribes, Bugtis and Marris are the principal ones who are settled in the buttresses of the Sulemania. The Talpur of Sind aIso claim their Baloch origin Brahvi speaking tribe include Raisani, Shahwani, Sumulani, Sarparrah, Bangulzai, Mohammad Shahi, Lehri, Bezenjo, Mohammad Hasni, Zehri , Sarparrah, Mengal, Kurd,Sasoli, Satakzai, Lango, Rodeni, Kalmati, Jattak, Yagazehi and Qambarani , most of these tribes are bi- lingual and are quite fluent both in the Balochi and Brahvi Languages. The Pashtoon tribes include Kakar, Ghilzai Tareen, Mandokhel , Sherani, Luni, Kasi and Achakzai.


Balochistan, despite its scarce population, has an uncommon racial and tribal diversity. Most of the people in the cities and towns understand and speak more than two languages. In adddition to Balochi, Pashtoo and Brahvi, the majority of the population understand and speak Urdu, the national language. In Kachhi and Sibi districts, people speak Seraiki and Sindhi. Quetta city, the confluence point of all linguistic groups accommodates not only Urdu, Balochi, Pashtoo, Brahvi and Sindhi speaking people but Darri and Persian speaking ones as well. Dehwar tribe of Sarawan sub-division in Kalat, also speaks a language derived from Persian.


Cultural landscape of Balochistan portrays various ethnic groups. Though people speak different languages, there is a similarity in their literature, beliefs, moral order and customs. The cementing factor is religion which provides a base for unity and common social order.
Brahvi, Balochi and Pashtoon tribes are known for their hospitality. Guest is accorded is held in high esteem and considered a blessing from God. Better off people even slaughter sheep or goat for their guest. Sometimes, it so happens that where there are more houses, the guest is assumed to be the guest of the whole village. This open heartedness is the loving feature of the tribal people and is not as deep in the city or town dwellers.
Another adorable feature of Balochistan culture is faithfulness and sincerity in all relationships. There is no place or respect for unfaithful people in prevalent moral order. If fidelity is reciprocated with disloyalty or betrayal it is never forgotten.


Marriages are solemnized in presence of Mullah (a religious teacher) and witnesses. Life partners are commonly selected within the family (constituting all close relatives) or tribe. Except a negligible fraction of love marriages, all marriages are arranged. Divorce rate is very low.
A lot of marriage rituals are celebrated in different tribes. In some tribes, the takings of “Valver”, a sum of money paid by the groom to his to be wife’s family, also exist. But this custom is now gradually dying out since it has given rise to many social problems. The birth of a male child is taken as a source of p ride since he is though t to be the defender of this family and tribe.


The mode of dress among the Balochi, Pashtoon and Brahvi tribes is very similar having a few minor dissimilarities. Turban is the common headwear of the men. Wide loose shalwar (a bit similar to loose trouser) and knee-long shirts are worn by all. The dress of the woman consists of the typical shirt having a big pocket in front. The shirt normally has embroidery work with embedded small round mirror pieces. Big ‘Dopatta’ or ‘Chaddar’, a long rectangular piece of cloth cascading down the shoulders and used to cover head, are used by the women.


The Baluch is observe the festivals of Eid al-Fitr , which marks the end of Ramadan , and Eid al-Adha , the Feast of Sacrifice that falls at the end of the Islamic year. On these occasions, people put on clean clothes and begin the day with prayer. The rest of the holiday is spent in gambling, horseracing, and general merrymaking.Eid al-Adha is celebrated with the sacrifice of goats and sheep. The meat is distributed among relatives, friends, and the poor. Alms (donations) are given to beggars. The tenth day of the month of Muharram is observed by visits to the graves of relatives, followed by prayers and the giving of alms to the poor. In general, the Baluch i pay less attention to celebrating festivals than do other Muslim peoples in South Asia.[6] Major Holidays.


When Baluchi greet each other, they normally shake hands. However, if an ordinary tribesperson meets a religious leader, the tribesperson reverently touches the leader's feet. A meeting usually begins with inquiries after health (durahi) and then goes on to an exchange of news (hal). It is considered the height of rudeness not to ask for news from the person one is meeting. The Baluch i are guided in their daily lives and social relations by a code of conduct known as Baluchmayar, or "the Baluch i way." A Baluch i is expected to be generous in hospitality to guests, offer refuge to people who seek protection, and be honest in dealings with others. A Baluch i man must be merciful to women and refrain from killing a man who has found sanctuary in the shrine of a pir (Sufi saint). He is also expected to defend his honor (izzat) and the honor of the women in his family, and his other relatives.
Baluchi nomads live in tents (gidam) made of palm matting stretched on poles. A coarse goat-hair carpet forms the floor of the tent. There are permanent settlements to live in during the summer months. More recently, houses have been built of sundried brick. They are scattered along narrow, winding village lanes. Both old and newer houses have an open courtyard in front, enclosed by a low mud wall or palm fence.


There are religious and social festivals celebrated by the people of Balochistan. Two major religious festivals are Eid-ul-Azha and Eid-ul-Fiter. On these festivals people adorn their houses, wear new dresses, cook special dishes and visit each other. Eid-Meladun-Nabi is another religious festival. It is a celebration of the Holy Prophet’s birthday. Numerous colorful social festivals are also source of jubilation. Sibi festival that traces its roots to Mehergar, an archeological site of ancient human civilization, attracts people from across the country. It is attended by common folks, ministers and other government officials. Folk music performance, cultural dances, handicrafts stalls, cattle shows and a number of other amusing activities present a perfect riot of color. Buzkashi is a peculiar festival showing valour of Balochistan people. It is celebrated on horse-back by two teams that use their skills to snatch a goat from the each other.


Although the Balochi tribes have lived in Baluchistan region for hundreds of years, it wasn’t until early 17th century that the various tribes first experienced some unity under the leadership of the tribal leader, Mir Hasan, who styled himself as the “Khan of Baloch”. This would later pave way for the establishment of the Khanate of Kalat under Mir Ahmad Khan Qambrani Baloch, which would survive until 1955 when it was ceded to Pakistan.Khan of Baloch



Baloch Culture Day was observed across Balochistan including Gwadar, Panjgur, Kharan, Chagai, Dalbandin, Nushki, Kalat, Khuzdar, Mastung, Bolan, Sibi, Nasirabad, Jaffarabad and other respective areas. Balochi Culture Day Celebrations were also held at Quetta Press Club, Officer Club and Balochistan University. Various shows including musical programmes are being organised in respective areas of Balochistan.Various processions of youth, students and people from all walks of life would be taken out from various parts of the provincial with distinctive Balochi dress, turban and embroided dress.


The Sibi Mela (festival) began with fanfare and pomp and show in Balochistan’s historical district of Sibi .The annual fair in Sibi is certainly a factual reflection of ancient cultures of the province and people living here for centuries. This event has been helpful to create harmony, national cohesion and love among people of the province and country at large on one side, while on the other side, it has also been financially beneficial in promoting the business of livestock and agriculture.The four-day Sibi Mela from March 2-5 started at Sardar Chakar Khan Stadium Sibi. Balochistan Minister for Agriculture Sardar Aslam Bizenjo was the chief guest of the opening event.

Demonstrated Flower Show and the Bands Party in Sibi Mela

The students of different schools of Sibi demonstrated flower show and the bands party of FC, Pak Army and BRP displayed stunning performance at the opening ceremony. The National Anthem was played and animals’ exhibition enthralled the spectators.


The climate of the upper highlands is characterized by very cold winters and warm summers. Winters of the lower highlands vary from extremely cold in the northern districts to mild conditions closer to the Makran coast. Summers are hot and dry. The arid zones of Chaghi and Kharan districts are extremely hot in summer. The plain areas are also very hot in summer with temperatures rising as high as 120 degrees F (50 degrees C). Winters are mild on the plains with the temperature, never falling below the freezing point. The desert climate is characterized by hot and very arid conditions. Occasionally strong windstorms make these areas very inhospitable.


Average annual precipitation in Balochistan varies from 2 to 20 inches (50 to 500 mm). Maximum precipitation falls in the northeastern areas with annual average rain fall ranging from 8 to 20 inches (200 to 500 mm). It decreases in the south and the eastern parts and is minimum in Naukundi. Kharan and Dalbandin area, rainfall ranges between 1 to 2 inches (25 to 50mm). Evaporation rates are higher than the precipitation and generally vary from 72 to 76 inches (1830 1930 mm) per annum.


All rivers and streams are part of three major drainage systems. Coastal drainage system is characterized by small, ephemeral streams and hill torrents. Rivers and streams that do not possess any significant perennial flow constitute Inland system that dominates the central and northwestern area of the province. Nari, Kaha and Gaj rivers are part of Indus drainage system located in the northeastern margins of the province. The flow in rivers is typified by spring runoff and occasional flash floods. The rivers beds are dry and look like small streams. Stream gradients are high and the rate of run off is very rapid. The Zhob River Basin drains towards the northeast into the Gomal River which ultimately joins the Indus River. Streams along the border of Punjab and Sindh provinces flow toward the east and southeast into the Indus River. Central and western Balochistan drains towards the south and the southwest into the Arabian Sea. Some areas located in districts Chaghi, Kharan, and Panjgur drain into playa lakes, locally called " Hamun" such as Humun-e- Lora and Hamun-e-Mashkel etc. The important rivers in Balochistan are Zhob, Nari, Bolan, Pishin, Lora, Mula, Hub, Porali, Hingol, Rakshan and Dasht

Quaid-E-Azam Residency

Quaid-e-Azam residency with its lush green lawns, chinar trees and flower gardens commands a striking view of the whole valley. It is of historical importance, as the Quaid-e- Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the Founder of Pakistan, stayed there during his last illness. It houses the relics of the Father of the Nation. The Residency was built in 1882 by the British and used by the Agent to the Governor General as his summer headquarters.

Hazarganji Chiltan National Park

In the Hazarganji Chiltan National Park, 20 kilometers South-West of Quetta, Maarkhors have been given protection. The park is spread over 32,500 acres, altitude ranging from 2021 to 3264 meters. Hazarganji literally means "of a thousand treasures". In the folds of these mountains, legend has it, that, there are over a thousand treasures buried, reminders of the passage of great armies down the corridors of history. The Bactrains, Scythians, Mongols and then the great migrating hordes of Baloch all passed this way.

Hanna Lake

A little short of the place where the Urak Valley begins and 10 kilometers from Quetta is the Hanna Lake, where suitable rest rooms and pavilions on terraces have been provided. Golden fish in the lake comes swimming right upto the edge of the lake. A little distance away, the waters of the lake take on a greenish blue tint. Right where the water ends, have been planted pine trees on the grass filled slopes. The greenish-blue waters of the lake provide a rich contrast to the sandy brown of the hills in the background. One can promenade on the terraces. Wagon service operates from city bus station at Circular Road. The transport can be hired through the Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation (PTDC) Tourist Information Centre, Muslim Hotel, Jinnah Road Quetta.

Quetta/The Capital City

Quetta, the capital of Balochistan, 1692 meters above sea level, lies at the mouth of Bolan Pass. It has three large craggy mountains. The name Quetta is derived from the word "Kwatta" which means a fort and, no doubt, it is a natural fort surrounded as it is by imposing hills on all sides. The encircling hills have the re-sounding names of Chiltan, Takatoo, Murdaar and Zarghoon, that seem to brood upon this pleasant town. There are other mountains that form a ring around it. Their copper red and russet rocks and crests that are powdered with snow in winters add immense charm to the town. The main thoroughfare and the commercial centre of Quetta is Jinnah Road, where the Tourist Information centre of Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation, as the banks restaurants and handicraft shops are located.


A visit to Quetta is incomplete without a trip to Ziarat. Situated 133 kilometers (3 hours by car) from Quetta at an altitude of 2449 metres above sea level, Ziarat is a holiday resort amidst one of the largest and oldest Juniper forests in the world. It is said that some of the Juniper trees are as old as 5000 years. The name Ziarat means 'Shrine'. A local saint, Kharwari Baba, is believed to have rested in the valley and blessed it. After his death he was buried here. People frequently visit the saint's shrine, which is 10 kilometers from Ziarat. Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation has a Motel Complex with 18 comfortable rooms and cottages. Accommodation can be booked from the PTDC Offices in Quetta.The apple grown in the orchards, particularly the black and red kulu variety are delicious.

Other Places to visit:
Zindra Shrine of Baba Kharwari
Fern Tangi
Sandeman Tangi
Chutair Valley
Lak Pass
Bolan Pass
Khojjak Pass
Harnai Pass

Mineral Resources in Balochistan

Balochistan possesses great unexplored potential of metallic and non-metallic minerals. Presently, the minerals being exploited are:
Iron Ore


Balochistan coal can cater to the existing and future energy requirement of our country to a great extent. More than 90% of coal is dispatched to other provinces for use in brick kilns. Its reserves are found in


Sizable deposits of this mineral are found at Muslimbagh, district Killa Saifullah. Lasbela, Khuzdar, Kharan and Chaghi districts have chromite reserves. Private sector has been engaged in mining this mineral.


The biggest deposit of barytes is located near Khuzdar with a total reserve of over 2.00 million tones. Scientific mining as well as grinding of this mineral started in 1976. Almost the entire production of barites is consumed locally by OGDC and other oil drilling companies.

Sulphur deposits are available at Koh-e-Sultan in District Chaghi. Three main deposits are clustered around the Southern half of the extinct volcano, Koh-e- Sultan. The deposits are of fumaroles origin and native Sulphur is found in cracks and as impregnation in volcanic tuffs. The Chief use of Sulphur is the manufacturing of Sulphuric acid etc.


Large commercially exploitable deposits are found throughout district Chaghi, starting from Dalbandin and extending to the borders of Iran. Some deposits are located close to Pak-Afghan border areas namely Zardkan, Siah-Chang, Jhulli, Patkok, Maskichah, Zeh, Chilgazi and Buttak. Onyx, a dark green marble, found in Chaghi is of superior quality. Onyx of good quality is found in Bolan, Lasbela and Khuzdar districts.

Iron Ore

Chaghi, a mineral rich area, possesses nearly 30 million tonnes of iron ore. Geological Survey of Pakistan, in a report, states that there are 1 to 7 meters( averaging about 2 meters) thick hematitic sedimentary ironstone bed of Jurassic age(150 million years old) at the contact of Chiltan Limestone, and Sember formation of Cretaceous age (150-65 million years old) near Johan in Dilband area of Mastung district. The reserves have been tentatively estimated at over 200 million tonnes.


This is a relatively newly discovered mineral. Its deposits are found in Lasbela district.


Limestone exists in abundance in different parts of Balochistan. Several hundred meters thick layers of limestone, at places dolomitic, occur in Chiltan Formation of Jurassic age in Quetta and Kalat. Limestone of Cretaceous age, 300 to 50 meters thick, is widely found in Balochistan. Harnai, Sor Range, and Spintangi areas have reserves of limestone.


Sulphor deposits are available at Koh-i-Sultan in Chaghi district. Three main depoit are clustered around the southern half o the extinct volcano, Koh-i-Sultan. The deposits are of fumaralic origin and native sulphor is found in vugs, cracks, and as impregnation in volcanic tuffs. The chief use of sulphor is I the manufacturing of sulphuric acid and explosives.



One of the best Balochi cuisines is Dampukht. It is cooked at low flame due to which the spices etc. are able to release their taste over a longer time. In order to further increase the aroma, you cover the handi, in which Dampukht is cooked, very tightly. It is also covered with wheat at times. It requires huge efforts and time to cook. So don’t miss Dampukht on your visit to Baluchistan or else you will regret as it is hard to find Dampukht in any other area.


Kaak is also called Kurnoo in Balochi language. Kaak is actually the lumps of wheat that are wrapped around a rock and then cooked on a fire. Kaak is specially meant to be eaten with freshly cooked meat like Dampukht or Sajji. The locals really like to eat it with this type of meat. So for the perfect food order, you also must try Dampukht along with Kaak.


The list of Balochi traditional cuisine is too large but I am trying to some of the best out of all food items.
Abgoosht is actually the ‘lamb stew’ and is made by Kurdish or we can say Iranian descendants in Baluchistan. The lamb stew contains various mashed ingredients like kidney, beans, and liver. Balochi loves to eat Abgoosht.
Khaddi Kabab

Reading ‘Khaddi Kabab’ name would have made you thought of ‘Kabab’ type of dish. No, it’s totally the opposite. Khaddi Kabab is again lamp dish and is very famous not only in Baluchistan rather across entire Pakistan. It is cooked on fire by adding some spices over the lamb and is served with rice. This clearly tells us how much Balochi people love meat and specially Lamb.


We all have tried Sajji even in Islamabad. But in Baluchistan, it is not chicken Sajji rather it is again lamp sajji. Lamb Sajji is covered with green papaya paste and is roasted over coals. Lamp sajji is in Baluchistan is stuff with rice too; whereas in other parts of Pakistan that type of Sajji is difficult to get.
Being rich in culture, Baluchistan’s food is also famous for its taste and especially the way they cook. The mouth-watering Balochi food is difficult to find in other areas of Pakistan so don’t miss them during your visit to Baluchistan.