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CULTURE OF SINDH

 Sindh is one of the province in Pakistan located at the Southern border. The province of Sindh has been named after the famous River Indus. In Sanskrit, the province was dubbed Sindhu meaning an ocean. Around 3000 B.C, Dravidian cultures urbanized and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization. According to the Historians, Indus Valley Civilization declined due to the natural disasters such as floods but the invasions of Indo- Arians caused the sudden collapse of it. In the recent history, Sindh was conquered by the British in 1843. Sindh province remained the part of British India until 1947 when it was made one of the provinces of Pakistan.

 The Culture of Sindh has its roots in the Indus Valley Civilization. Sindh has been shaped by the largely desert region, the natural resources it had available, and continuous foreign influence. The Indus or Sindhu River that passes through the land, and the Arabian Sea (that defines its borders) also supported the seafaring traditions among the local people. The local climate also reflects why the Sindhis have the language, folklore, traditions, customs and lifestyle that are so different from the neighboring regions. The Sindhi culture is also practiced by the Sindhi Diaspora.

 The roots of Sindhi culture go back to the distant past. Archaeological research during 19th and 20th centuries showed the roots of social life, religion and culture of the people of the Sindh: their agricultural practices, traditional arts and crafts, customs and tradition and other parts of social life, going back to a mature Indus Valley Civilization of the third millennium BC. Recent researches have traced the Indus valley civilization to even earlier ancestry.

LANGUAGE
 Sindhi language evolved over a period of 2400 years. The language of the people of Sindh, after coming in contact with the Aryan, became Indo-Aryan (Prakrit). Sindhi language, therefore, has a solid base of Prakrit as well as Sanskrit, the language of India, with vocabulary from Arabic, Persian, and some Dravidian – descendants from Mediterranean sub-continent. Initially, Sindhi had close contacts with Arabic- speaking Muslims. Therefore the language adopted many of the Arabic words.

 Sindhi language is an ancient language spoken in Pakistan and many other parts of the world. It is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by approximately 41 million people in Pakistan, and 12 million people in India; it is the second most spoken language of Pakistan, mostly spoken in the Sindh province. It is a recognized official language in Pakistan, and also an official language in India. Government of Pakistan issues National Identity Cards to its citizens only in two languages; Sindhi and Urdu.

 Sindhi language is also greatly influenced by Sanskrit and about 70% of the words in Sindhi are of Sanskrit origin. Sindhi is a very rich language with a vast vocabulary; this has made it a favorite of many writers and so a lot of literature and poetry has been written in Sindhi. It has been the inspiration for Sindhi art, music, literature, culture and the way of life. The language can be written using the Devanagri or Arabic script


FESTIVALS
 The people of Sind love their religion and the two festivals of Eid-ul-Adha and Eid-ul-Fitr are celebrated with zeal and enthusiasm. Different domestic festivals are arranged by the local people to provide people with new things they buy on Eid’s occasion. On different occasions, the Folk dance of Bhagat is also performed by professionals to entertain the visiting people. Hence, a Sindhi Cultural Festival is a compound of folk dances, music and cheap entertainment for local people.

LIFESTYLE

 People of Sindh are more inclined towards an agricultural based lifestyle. The fertile Indus Plains provide a valuable source of income for the local people who practice farming on these lands. Inland fishing is also practiced along the Indus River in Upper Sind providing further opportunities for local people. Itinerant way of lifestyle is commonly seen in the desertic regions of Thar where people move from place to place in search for drinking water sources along with their animals.

CULTURAL CHARACTER
 The ancient Sindhi civilization was the place, where the aesthetic utilization of leisure was freely indulged. There has been evidence, that the excavations of sites dating back to 3000 B.C. (all over Sindh) is also true, around 1200 years ago when Jaina Dakshiniya Chihna (778 A.D.) described the distinguished features of Sindhi’s in this way: “Elegant, with a lovely, soft and slow gait, they are fond of the art of harvas (that is, songs, music and dancing) and full affection towards their country.”



Sindhi’s celebrate Sindh Cultural day worldwide on 6th December by wearing Ajrak & Sindhi Topi on that time.



SINDHI LITERATURE
SINDHI POETRY

Sindhi poetry is also prominent in Sindhi culture. Poetry of Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai &. Sachal Sarmast is very famous amongst all of Pakistanis. Regional poets are Shaikh Ayaz, Ustaad Bhukhari, Ahmed Khan MAdhoosh, Adal Soomro, Ayaz Gull, Abdul Ghaffar Tabasum, Rukhsana Preet, and Waseem Soomro. Many Sindhi poets are doing their poetry work continuously.

SINDHI MUSIC
Music from Sindh province is sung in Sindhi, and is generally performed in either the "Baits" or "Waee" styles. The Baits style is vocal music in Sanhoon (low voice) or Graham (high voice). Waee instrumental music is performed in a variety of ways using a string instrument. Waee, also known as Kafi, is found in the surrounding areas of Balochistan, Punjab, and Kutch.

FESTIVALS
 The people of Sindh love their religion and the two festivals of Eid-ul-Adha and Eid-ul-Fitr are celebrated with zeal and enthusiasm. Different domestic festivals are arranged by the local people to provide people with new things they buy on Eid’s occasion. On different occasions, the Folk dance of Bhagat is also performed by professionals to entertain the visiting people. Hence, a Sindhi Cultural Festival is a compound of folk dances, music and cheap entertainment for local people.

LIFESTYLE
 People of Sindh are more inclined towards an agricultural based lifestyle. The fertile Indus Plains provide a valuable source of income for the local people who practice farming on these lands. Inland fishing is also practiced along the Indus River in Upper Sind providing further opportunities for local people. Itinerant way of lifestyle is commonly seen in the desertic regions of Thar where people move from place to place in search for drinking water sources along with their animals.

ARTS AND MUSIC
 Sindhi society is dominated by great Sufis, the mystics and the martyrs. It has always been the land of peace, love, romance, and great cultural and artistic values. There were the great theologians of the Naqsh bandi order in Thatta who translated the fundamentals of the religion of Islam into their mother tongue. There were the great Sufi (mystic) poets like Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai who was the cherisher of truth and spent all his life in its propagation, pursuit and quest. Bhitai was also an excellent musician. He invented a new type of musical instrument, Tambura (drone instrument), which till today, is a primary source of music in rural Sindh. The beauty of Shah’s verses is enhanced by his blending of traditional Indian rag with the Sindhi folk songs and music.

CULTURAL HERITAGE
 The historic Sindhi civilization was the area, where the elegant utilization of freedom was freely accommodated. There have been some proofs, that the revelation of places dating back to 3000 B.C. is also correct, about 1200 years ago when Jaina Dakshiniya Chihna elaborated the distinctive characteristics of Sindhis in this style: “Dignified with a slow, beautiful and soft walk, they are fascinated by the arts of harvas (Song/Dance) and complete devotion towards the country.” The Sindhi people celebrate Sindhi Cultural Day on 6th December by wearing Sindhi cap and Ajrak at that day. Cultural Heritage


CULTURAL CHARACTER
The ancient Sindhi civilization was the place, where the aesthetic utilization of leisure was freely indulged. There has been evidence, that the excavations of sites dating back to 3000 B.C. (all over Sindh) is also true, around 1200 years ago when Jaina Dakshiniya Chihna (778 A.D.) described the distinguished features of Sindhi’s in this way: “Elegant, with a lovely, soft and slow gait, they are fond of the art of harvas (that is, songs, music and dancing) and full affection towards their country.” Sindhi’s celebrate Sindh Cultural day worldwide on 6th December by wearing Ajrak & Sindhi Topi on that time. Cultural Character

SINDHI CUISINE


Sindhi cuisine refers to the native cuisine of the Sindhi people from Sindh, Pakistan. The daily food in most Sindhi households consists of wheat-based flat-bread (phulka) and rice accompanied by two dishes, one gravy and one dry.

SPORTS MALAKHRA
Malakhra or Malakhro is a ancient Sindhi form of wrestling in Pakistan, which dates back 5000 years.The match begins with both wrestlers tying a twisted cloth around the opponent's waist. Each one then holds onto the opponent's waist cloth and tries to throw him to the ground. Malakhra is one of the favorite sports among males in Sindh, Pakistan. Malakhro matches are generally held on holidays and Fridays and are a feature of all fairs and festivals. Rich feudal lords and influential persons maintain famous Malhoo (wrestlers) and organize matches for them.


Wanjh Watti
The province of Sindh welcomes and hosts the traditional sports like Kabaddi, Malakhra and Wanj Watti, deployed on their specific associations, are now being ignored through SOA. Leader of Sindh Wanj Watti Association, Mumtaz Shoro, said that cultural sports ought to be the heart of these festivals. The SOA, based on Shoro, has provided them Rs. 10,000 to arrange the Wanj Watti competition for three days and also the gamers+players, owned by a kind background, were not even provided appropriate equipment.

Kodi Kodi
Kodi Kodi is also a popular game of Sindh Province. It is a 2 team game played by 2 teams. One of the player from the one group go to the other one and the other group has to catch him and his goal is to touch one of them and run hurriedly back to his group. This game is also conducted and played well in Punjab. Not merely Punjab this is also played in India and globally. Some other games that are popularly played in Sindh province are:
• Horse Dancing
• Horse Racing
• Cattle Race
But recently, the most favorable popular game in Sindh that is also played world widely is Cricket. The above mentioned traditional games are played In Sindh and are of a major significance in remote and rural areas, they also gamble in these regional sports and win and lose lacks and thousands of their money.

COMMON INSTRUMENTS USED IN SINDHI REGIONAL MUSIC
Ektara known as Yaktaro in Sindhi
Tanpura known as Danburo in Sindhi
Alghoza Flute
Bansuri
Pungi known as Been in Sindhi
Narr
Naghara
Dhol
Culture


POETRY
Sindhi poetry is also prominent in Sindhi culture. Poetry of Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai and Sachal Sarmast is very famous throughout Sindh.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES


Mohen-Jo-Daro
The excavations of Mohen-Jo-Daro have unfolded the city life of a civilization of people with values, a distinct identity and culture. Therefore, the first definition of the Sindhi culture emanates from that over the 7000-year-old Indus Valley Civilization. This is the pre-Aryan period, about 3,000 years BC., when the urban civilization in Sindh was at its peak.


Ranikot Fort
In Sir Mortimer Wheeler's book, Civilization of the Indus Valley and Beyond, it is said that; "Civilization, in a minimum sense of the term, is the art of living in towns, with all that the condition implies in respect of social skills and disciplines." When people speak of Sindhi civilization, they have to concern themselves, mainly with the material and concrete side of human habitation of which Sindhi culture is the only essence called the superstructure The present day Sindh, along with the Northern part of the Indus Valley Civilization (around 3000 to 2500 BC) is located on its urban civilization Ranikot Fort is also a landmark of the Indus valley civilization. It is the world's largest fort, with walls extending to 20 km. It has been called a "second Wall of China, and attracts many visitors.


SINDHI CULTURAL DAY (EKTA DAY)
Sindhis celebrate Sindh Cultural day worldwide every year on first Sunday of December,( 1st Sunday of December was Advised and fixed by Dr.Sarang Ansari New York , USA ) by wearing Ajrak & Sindhi Topi. On that occasion, the musical programmes and rallies are held in many cities to mark the day with zeal. Major hallmarks of cities and towns are decorated with Sindhi Ajrak to highlight the cultural values of Sindh. The people across Sindh exchange gifts of Ajrak and Topi at various ceremonies. Even, the children and women are dressed up in Ajrak, assembling at the grand gathering, where famous Sindhi singers sing Sindhi songs, which depicts love and progress of Sindh. The musical performances of the artists compel the participants to dance on Sindhi tunes and ‘Jeay Sindh Jeay-Sindh Wara Jean’.