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Gurdwara:

A gurdwara, literally the Gateway to the Guru, is the place of worship for the Sikhs. It can easily be identified from a distance by its tall flagpole bearing the ‘Nishan Sahib’ or the Sikh Symbol – a triangular flag inscribed with Khanda Sahib.
The first gurdwara was built in Kartarpur Sahib (now in district Narowal of Pakistan), by the founder of Sikhism, Guru Nanak Dev Ji, in the year 1521. Later, such worship centres were built at a place where Sikhs could gather to hear the Guru give spiritual discourse and sing religious hymns in the praise of Waheguru. As the Sikh population continued to grow, it was the sixth Sikh guru, Guru Hargobind Ji, who introduced the word 'gurdwara' for such buildings. By the early 20th century, a number of Sikh gurdwaras in British India were under the control of the Hindu Mahants. To free these Sikh worship places from the nefarious possession of these Mahants, Sikh nation had to offer many sacrifices. The legend-like bloody happening, commonly known as Saka Nankana Sahib, formed the core of the Gurdwara Reform Movement. While this saga represented the extreme excesses and worst barbarism of Hindus it was an example of unprecedented discipline, self-control and exemplary patience displayed by the peaceful Sikh protesters. As a result of this movement, Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (Universal Gurdwara Management Committee) took the control of these Gurdwaras.
Even after independence and partition of Punjab in August 1947, the SGPC continued to control these shrines. However, the physical state and management conditions of the Gurdwaras in Pakistan, worsened by the day. The earnings of these gurdwaras through donations or ‘bhainta’ were taken by the SGPC to India. As such, on the explicit demands of the local Sikhs, order to form Pakistan Sikh Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee was passed by Government of Pakistan in 1999.
Unlike the places of worship in some other religious systems, gurdwara buildings do not have to conform to any set architectural design. The only established requirements are: the installation of the Guru Granth Sahib, under a canopy or in a canopied seat, usually on a platform higher than the specific floor on which the devotees sit, and a tall Sikh pennant flag atop the building. Lately, more and more gurdwaras have been having buildings imitating more or less the Harmindar Sahib (built by the Fifth Guru, Guru Arjan Dev Ji - completed in 1604, now also commonly known as Golden Temple, Amritsar) pattern, a synthesis of Indus-Persian and Sikh architecture. Most of them have square halls, stand on a higher plinth, have entrances on all four sides, and have square or octagonal domed sanctums usually in the middle. The location of the sanctum, more often than not, is such as to allow space for circumambulation. Sometimes, to augment the space, verandahs are built to skirt the hall. A popular model for the dome is the ribbed lotus, topped by an ornamental pinnacle. Arched copings, kiosks and solid domelets are used for exterior decorations.

Historic Gurdwaras

1. Nankana Sahib

Nankana Sahib, one of the holiest cities of the Sikhs, lies in the region of Sandal Bar – area between the Ravi and the Chenab. Originally known as Rai Bhoi di Talwandi, accredited after an old local Muslim ruler Rai Bhoi, it was this historic town where Baba Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikh religion was born on 15th April 1469 A.D. and spent his childhood days. It is because of different singularly honourific places attached with the memory of the Sat Guru that we find seven Gurdwaras placed at different spots over its length and breadth. We also find in this town three sacred Sikh Shrines, memorial to historic events or happening.
The area around Nankana Sahib was formerly a tehsil of Sheikhupura District. In May 2005, the Punjab Government decided to raise up its status to that of a District having three tehsils. It has a population of about 1,599,538 heads, the majority being Muslims (97%) while Sikhs dominate other religious communities especially in the town itself.
The main local language is Punjabi though Urdu and English are also used. The Shahmukhi script of Punjabi is widely understood but Gurmukhi is not much behind in use in the town. It is perhaps one of the few places in Pakistan where Gurmukhi is taught at school level.
Nankana Sahib is some 80 kilometres – or about 2 hours run – from the Provincial capital, Lahore and is also well-connected by rail and road with other cities of Pakistan. The Allama Iqbal International, Lahore, serves it as the nearest airport. The town has the facility of accommodation for yatrees, basically in Gurdwara Janamasthan and Gurdwara Tamboo Sahib while several small hotels within walking distance of the major Gurdwaras are also available for boarding and lodging. The main Langar is located inside the Gurdwara Janamasthan.

Sikh Shrines

i. Gurdwara Janamasthan:


One of the most beautiful and the largest of the Sikh Shrines is the Gurdwara Janamasthan located in the heart of the town. It is built at the spot where Baba Guru Nanak Ji was born. The building with a dome was constructed to commemorate the event during 1819-20 with the approval of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The Parkash Asthan Sahib within its premises marks the spot of the great event.
The open verandah in front of Chaukhandi was built by Mahant Sadhuram and it has been given the name of Baradari. The portion above the foyer, the tower and the boundary wall around the Gurdwara were built by the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee. The ‘Sarover’ (pond) was repaired during the reign of Ranjit Singh. Its steps were reconstructed by Baba Gurmukh Singh Ji in 1944 A.D. The ‘Sarovar’ has been built anew by Government of Pakistan with much improved plan. Moreover, a compatible ‘Jorra Ghar’ (Shoe-house) has also been added along-with Sarover. Following development works have also been carried out recently:
  1. Renovation of 60 old rooms
  2. Construction of 96 Pre-fabricated huts
  3. Construction of 207 rooms
  4. Water Tank with the capacity of 50,000 Gallons
  5. Installation of water filtration plant
  6. Marble flooring and tuff tiles in the Gurdwara.
  7. Installation of CCTV System, luggage scanner, Walk through gates, metal detectors etc. for security purpose.

a. Jand Sahib:
Initially the control of the Gurdwara was with the Udasis. Later on it shifted to Mahants (Hindu clergy). When Sikhs demanded its control, the Mahants resisted violently and aggressively. On 21st February 1921 A.D. the Mahants opened fire inside the Gurdwara Janamasthan on the un-armed innocent Sikhs gathered there for the purpose. Many of them were martyred ruthlessly. They were cremated on the same day, near Jand Sahib, where now stands a big portico (New Baradari). Some bullets even hit the ‘beerr’ of Guru Granth Sahib. The Signs of bullets are still there on the walls of Parkashasthan. It may be of interest to note that it was on this day that Mahatma Gandhi gave the title of “Brave Nation” to the Sikhs. Just on the right side of the Chaukhandi Gurdwara Janamasthan, stands a sorrowful lonely tree, the physical witness to the inhuman historical event of the brutality meted out to the peaceful and unarmed Sikhs by the mercenaries of the Mahant. Bhai Lachhman Singh, who was already injured by bullets, was hanged upside down with this tree of Jand and burnt alive by the Hindu Mahant Narainun. It thus took a sacred place in the history of the Sikhs.
b. Shaheed Gunj Bhai Daleep Singh
During the same sad incident of Saka Nankana Sahib as briefly given above, Bhai Dalip Singh and Bhai Waryam Singh Ji were also burnt alive in a kiln. This place of the kiln takes a special place in Sikh history and is maintained to keep the sacrifice of those “Panth Premi” (lovers of the religion) alive.
c. Khuh Bebe Nanki Ji
It is the family well (Khuh) of Baba Guru Nanak Ji from where the family met the water requirements. It is commonly known as “Khuh Bebe Nanki Ji” after the name of the Guru’s only sister, who apparently was the main user of it. It is located on the left side, presently enclosed by iron grill, just after the foyer, beside the door on your left. Sat Guru had taken the water of this well in his childhood. The well is devoid of water now though a tube-well has been installed in it to meet the water requirements of the large Gurdwara premises.

ii. Gurdwara Bal-Lila Sahib


This shrine commemorates the place where Baba Guru Nanak Ji used to play as a child. It is located about 225 metres in the South-east of Gurdwara Janamasthan. There is a ‘Sarover’ in the east of Gurdwara, which was built by Rai Bular and named after Baba Guru Nanak Ji. In 1820-21 A.D. Baba Gurbakhsh Singh re-built the Gurdwara and its adjacent ‘Sarovar’ in burnt-bricks under the command of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Later, Nirmal Mahants started a new building but it could not be completed as the control of Gurdwara passed on to the Parbandhak Committee. Baba Sant Gurmukh Singh Ji of Patiala got the building completed in 1945-46. He also constructed the steps and boundary wall of the ‘Sarover’.



iii. Gurdwara Patti Sahib

This sacred Gurdwara stands close to Gurdwara Bal-Lila Sahib. This is the site where First Patshah Guru Nanak Ji was sent to learn Hindi from Pandit Gopal Das and then to learn Sanskrit from Pandit Brij Lal.
His worldly tutors had to bow their heads before Jagat Guru’s brilliant intellect and spiritual knowledge. Guru Ji composed his bani called Patti in “Asa Rag” to remove the suspicion and to break the pride of the Pandits. He was then sent to Maulana Qutbuddin of Talwandi to learn Arabic and Persian at the age of thirteen.
The Sikh families, living at Nankana Sahib perform Parkash of Granth Sahib twice a day, in Gurdwara Patti Sahib.



iv. Gurdwara Kiara Sahib

This sacred Gurdwara is at a distance of one and a half Kilometres from the Gurdwara Janamasthan and stands close to Gurdwara Mal Ji Sahib. It was built at the sacred site where Guru Nanak Ji’s buffaloes had purportedly damaged the field of a farmer. According to the history, the farmer lodged a complaint with the local ruler Rai Bular. When questioned by Rai Bular, Baba Guru Nanak Ji said, “The buffaloes may have entered the field but no damage has been done to the crop”. When on the spot inquiry was made, it was found that the supposedly affected field was as green and fresh as before.
This Gurdwara was built during the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The ‘Sarover’ of Gurdwara was constructed by Baba Gurmukh Singh Ji of Patiala in 1946 A.D.


v. Gurdwara Maal Ji Sahib

This sacred Gurdwara is located about twenty minutes walk from Gurdwara Janamasthan, on the main road leading towards Sheikhupura. Nankana Railway station lies close to this Shrine. There was a dense forest during the times of Guru Nanak Ji and it was the place where he used to graze his buffalos herd in his childhood. Once he fell asleep at this place in the forest, under the cool shade of a ‘Vaan’ tree. His face was exposed to the sun. A black Cobra appeared and extended its ‘hood’ on his face to provide shade. The cobra maintained its position so long as Guru Ji remained asleep. The tree under which Guru Ji slept is continued to be maintained to this day. A Gurdwara was also built here to commemorate the incident.



vi. Gurdwara Tamboo Sahib

Going along the road from Nankana Sahib Railway Station towards the Gurdwara Janamasthan, there is a Gurdwara with a high dome on your right hand, a couple of hundred metres from Gurdwara Janamasthan. It is Gurdwara Tamboo Sahib.
Kalu Mehta, father of young Nanak had given him Rs. 20 to do business. However, he spent this amount on feeding the starving mystics, the incident came to be known as ‘Sacha Sauda’ or the true bargain. On his way back, along with Bhai Mardana, Guru Nanak rested under a ‘vaan’ tree which is maintained to this day. A Gurdwara was built here, which is known as Gurdwara Tamboo (tent) Sahib after the tent-like shape of the tree. Due to differences between two factions an additional Parkash Asthan – known as “Nahang Singh Chhauni” (camp) came up near the Gurdwara, and is still standing on its side.


vii. Gurdwara 5th & 6th Patshahi

These Gurdwaras are situated in the town near Gurdwara Tamboo Sahib, on the road leading towards Gurdwara Janamasthan. The Gurdwara of Guru Arjun Dev Ji is without a dome whereas the shrine of the Patshah of Meeri Peeri Guru Hargobind Ji has been built with dome. Both of these Gurdwaras are located within one enclosure.
The sixth Patshah came to visit Nankana Sahib in 1613 A.D. while returning from Kashmir. The Guru’s disciples established this Gur Mela at the site where he had stayed. A piece of the tree under which Guru Ji stayed, has been preserved in a glass case and is placed inside the domed Gurdwara of the 6th Guru for Darshan by Sangats.



2. District Sheikhupura

i. Gurdwara Sacha Sauda, Farooqabad (ChoorhKana)

In order to engage Guru Nanak Ji in worldly affairs, his father Mehta Kalu, gave him twenty rupees and asked him to start his own business. It is said that he was 18 years of age at that time. Guru Ji along with Baba Mardana set out to do business. Outside Mandi Chuharkana (presently Farooqabad) they came across some starving “Jogis”. He could not bear this pathetic sight and immediately purchased edibles, with the money he had. He distributed the same among the starving mystics. When Guru Ji returned empty handed and his father came to know about it, he became very furious. Guru Nanak Ji told him that he had entered into a true deal (Sacha Sauda). The tradition of “Langar” started from this incident. The Gurdwara was built at the site where Guru Ji had fed the mystics. This fort-like spacious and beautiful Gurdwara was constructed at the command of Maharaja Ranjit Singh during his reign. A new dining hall and a new ‘Sarover’ have been constructed. Parkash of Guru Granth Sahib Ji takes place in the Gurdwara. Akhand Path Sahib is done four times a year.
The following development works have been carried out in the Gurdwara during recent years.
i. Construction of Darshni Dheorri and providing of tuff tiles.
ii. Construcion of boundary wall.
iii. Renovation of old rooms.

3. Eminabad, District Gujranwala


Eminabad, a famous historical town near Gujranwala, off the Grand Trunk road, is some 5 kilometres east of it. A good metalled road serves it from this point and the nearby railway station of the same name. Public transport is available from Lahore/ Gujranwala to Eminabad round the clock. The nearest airport that serves the place is Allama Iqbal International, Lahore. The ensemble of the Sikh Shrines in this town consist of Gurdwara Rorri Sahib – on the outskirts of the main populated area – Gurdwara Chakki Sahib and Gurdwara Bhai Lalu di Khui, both right within presently residential area of the town.

i. Gurdwara Rorri Sahib

When the armies of Babar entered Punjab, Baba Guru Nanak Ji was present at Eminabad. At the time of capture of this town, many locals were arrested, among whom was Baba Guru Nanak Ji also. At the time of arrest, he was sitting on the pebbles (Rorri) and was busy in his prayers. When Babar came to know about Baba Guru Nanak Ji, he honourably freed him along with many others. Gurdwara Rorri Sahib is one and a half kilometres away from the centre of the town of Eminabad, which is connected with it by a good black-top road. The impressive Gurdwara with an equally impressive gateway, stands at the place of pebbles (called Rorri in the local language), with a large “Sarovar”, guava trees and flower beds. The building of the Gurdwara had not been in good state of preservation till the Government of Pakistan undertook the renovation works while also built an enclosure wall at a huge cost. Its architecture is a unique example in the history of Gurdwaras. The following development works, in addition to those mentioned above, have been carried out during the recent past:
i. Construction of 5 new rooms.
ii. Construction of toilet blocks.
iii. Renovation of Sarover Sahib.
iv. Complete renovation of Gurdwara.

ii. Gurdwara Chakki Sahib

This Gurdwara is situated right in the heart of Eminabad Town. When Pabar had taken Baba Guru Nanak Ji as prisoner along with many other people he was put to hard labour on a millstone. When the officials of Emperor Babar saw that the grinder (Chakki) of Baba Ji was moving on its own, they informed the monarch about the miraculous incident. He then himself met Baba Guru Nanak Ji and freed him with dignity and honour.





iii. Gurdwara Bhai Lalo Di Khuhi

Bhai Lalu, a resident of Eminabad (Saidpur), was a carpenter by caste. Baba Guru Nanak Ji stayed at his house when he came to this area. Here, Guru Nanak Ji declined the invitation of a feast by Bhagu Malik, a typical feudal lord of the area. He thus got annoyed with the Baba Ji, who however offered a practical reason for declining the invitation of the Malik. Guru Ji took the buttered bread (paratha) of Bhagu Malik and squeezed it. Blood started to trickle down from the bread. He then squeezed a plain bread of Bhai Lalu and every body saw that milk oozed out of it. It not only offered the reason but also clarified the difference between legitimate and illegitimate earnings. He also wrote a “Shabad” addressing Bhai Lalu, which is part of Babar Bani.



4.Hasan Abdal, District Attock


Hasan Abdal is an historic town in Northern Punjab, Pakistan. The famous Karakoram Highway (KKH) branches off from the Grand Trunk Road (G.T. Road) from this town. It is located some 40 kilometres from Rawalpindi while on way to Peshawar, a few kilometers northwest of Wah. In addition to one of the most venerated Shrines of Sikhs – Gurdwara Punja Sahib – it also houses a tomb erroneously called Lala Rukh Tomb. There is also a grave inside a square walled Garden and a fresh water fish pond near the tomb. On the nearby hill there is a meditation chamber attributed to a saint Baba Hasan Abdal also known as Baba Wali Kandhari with local folklores, after whom the town is named.

i. Gurdwara Panja Sahib:

Baba Guru Nanak Dev Ji along with Bhai Mardana Ji reached Hasan Abdal at Vesakh Samwat 1578 B.K. corresponding to 1521 A.D., in the summer season. Under a shady cool tree of piple he made his resting place. This is the place, where he stopped a big boulder, rolling down from the hill, with single hand. The impression of his hand got indelibly engraved in the stone that has been preserved for ever. The Gurdwara has been named after this sacred hand print (Panja), which takes the focal place in the Gurdwara Sahib. To meet the water requirements, Baba Guru Nanak had lifted a small stone at this place and miraculously a spring of cool water started from the spot, which adorns the Shrine now. Visitors kiss the sacred Panja Sahib, satiate the spiritual thirst from the ever-flowing spring and feel elated. Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa built this spacious and extremely beautiful Gurdwara, along with ‘Sarovar’ during the rule of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who also came here to pay homage. The largest fair of Vesakhi is organized here when thousands of Sikh Yatrees come to this place from all over the world. Congregations of devotees take place four times a year. Guru Granth Sahib is recited daily. A very elegant residential block has been constructed in its premises. There is a school with other facilities in the Gurdwara Sahib. The Gurdwara is being well-maintained by the Evacuee Trust Property Board, Government of Pakistan and many development works have been completed, in addition to the afore-mentioned residential portion:
• Construction of double-storey ‘langar’ hall.
• Landscaping and providing of park.
• Installation of Solar energy panels for uninterrupted power supply.
• Construction of an over-head Water Tank with the capacity of 50,000 Gallons.
• Construction of 100 additional rooms with attached baths.
• Marble flooring of the entire area.

5. Lahore


Lahore is the capital of Punjab Province of Pakistan. Known as the cultural hub of the country, it is the second largest city, next only to Karachi in Pakistan. With a rich history dating back to over a millennium, Lahore is replete with physical heritage belonging to many a phase of its existence, including the era of the Sikh rule. The Sikh court continued to endow religious architecture in the city, as with other buildings also came up a number of Sikh gurdwaras. The metropolitan city of Lahore has all the modern facilities. It is connected by rail and road not only with all the important places in Pakistan but also, through Wagah/Atari, with India. A modern airport, Allama Iqbal International, serves its domestic and international visitors.

i. Gurdwara Dera Sahib

Gurdwara Dera Sahib is situated close to and opposite of the Lahore Fort. On its other side, adjacent to it is the famous Badshahi Mosque. This is the place where Guru Arjan Dev Ji was martyred, in the River Ravi, after having gone through the atrocities inflicted by Chandu, on 30th May 1606 A.D. Thara Sahib (platform) was built by Guru Hargobind Ji in 1619 A.D. at the site of martyrdom, Gur Asthans, during his visit to Lahore. Later, Maharaja Ranjit Singh constructed a small building of the Gurdwara.
In 1909 A.D. construction of Parkash Asthan Manji Sahib was started for the Parkash of Guru Granth Sahib. Arrangements for daily diwan were made and an inn for the residence of the pilgrims was also constructed by Shiromani Committee in the wake of Gurdwara reform movement. In 1927 Shiromani Committee took over the charge of Gurdwara and its construction restarted on 21st April 1930 A.D. which was completed on 9th September 1934 A.D. The domes were gold-plated, floors were cemented and the front of Gurdwara was built in marble. Parkash takes place daily. Evacuee Trust Property Board, Government Pakistan has appointed two Granthis. International Sangats visit the complex every year on Shaheedi Jor Mela, Vesakhi, death anniversary of Maharaja Ranjit Singh and birthday of Baba Guru Nanak Ji. In November 1996, Government of Pakistan built Mian Mir Residential Block, comprising 47 rooms for visitors. Guru’s ‘langar’ serves round the clock.
The Samadhi (mausoleum) of the Sikh ruler, Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780 - 1839) is also located within this complex. Its construction was started by his son, Kharak Singh on the spot where he was cremated, and was completed by his youngest son, Duleep Singh in 1848. The building represents Sikh architecture with gilded fluted domes and cupolas and an ornate balustrade round the top. The last remains, in the form of ashes, of the Maharaja are contained in a marble urn in the shape of a lotus, sheltered under a marble pavilion inlaid with pietra dura, in the centre of the building. Two small monuments to the west of the main mausoleum commemorate Ranjit Singh’s son Maharaja Kharak Singh and grandson Nau Nihal Singh, and their wives. Maintenance and extension of facilities for the yatrees and Sikh adherents in this revered complex continue for the better by Government of Pakistan while the ensemble is maintained and run under the Pakistan Sikh Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee.
Following development works have been carried out recently:
i. Renovation of old rooms
ii. Installation of water filtration plant
iii. Construction of fiber sun shades/huts
iv. Installation of CCTV camera & luggage Scanner, for security purpose.

ii. Janamasthan Guru Ram Das Ji (Choona Mandi)

Guru Ram Das ji was born at the site of this Gurdwara, which is located in a famous bazaar of walled Lahore, popularly known as “Chuna Mandi Bazaar”. He was born on 24th September 1534 A.D. and spent the first seven years of his life at this place.
To celebrate the birth of her son Kharrak Singh, Maharani Nakain (wife of Maharaja Ranjit Singh) built this Gurdwara, which greatly resembles Harmandir Sahib. Nishan Sahib is hoisted in the western corner. It is that historical place from where the “Singh Sabha Lehar” started.





iii.Gurdwara Shaheed Ganj


The historic Gurdwara is situated in the area now known as Naulakha. In the past there used to be a pleasant garden at this place, which was named as ‘Nau-Lakha Bagh’. Although it got annihilated in the times of the Mughals yet the quarters still retain the old name. Here is a busy bazaar generally called ‘Landa Bazar’. The whole range of used life necessities is available over here.
In this bazaar, Gurdwara Shaheed Ganj Singh-Singhnian is located. It is said that when Divan Kaura Mal persuaded the Sikhs to help Mir Mannu, Governor of Lahore around the middle of eighteenth century, at the time of the battle of Multan, the latter handed over this place to the Sikhs who made it a place of worship.



6. District Narowal

i. Gurdwara Darbar Sahib, Kartarpur


Kartarpur, literally "The City of God" in Punjabi, was established by Baba Guru Nanak Ji in 1522. It is situated in the present-day Narowal district of Punjab, Pakistan. Hardly a few kilometers from the Pak-India border, it is connected by metalled road with Lahore, which is 118 kilometres away. A regular road transport service is available between the provincial capital and Kartarpur Sahib. Allama Iqbal International, Lahore, serves it as the nearest airport. On the railway network, Kartarpur is served by station named after it, which is hardly 5 kilometres away. This is the place where Sri Guru Nanak Ji did farming for 18 years, Bhai Lehna was made Guru Angad by Guru Nanak Ji and Sri Guru Nanak Ji departed from this world at this place on 27th September, 1529 A.D. A Smadh and a grave of the Guru adorn together this sacred place. At the time of his departure from this world, a dispute had erupted between Sikhs and Muslims. The Sikhs claimed him a Sikh-Guru and Muslims claimed him as their “Peer”. The body was kept for a night, under sheet to resolve the dispute. Next morning when the sheet was lifted, there was a heap of flowers instead of the body, which were equally divided by Sikhs and Muslims. The Sikhs made his Smadh and the Muslims built his Mazar (Tomb), which now lie side by side.
It is a unique Shrine in the world, where two different religious communities come with the same love and respect for Baba Guru Nanak Ji. Muslims organize a great Urs (religious fair) every year, whereas the Sikh Guru-lovers pay homage to Sat Guru in their own religious way. Sangats visit this place throughout the year from all over the world.
A new road has been constructed by the government of Punjab up to the Gurdwara and electricity has also been provided. Gurdwara is under the control of Pakistan Sikh Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (PSGPC) while improvement of facilities for the yatrees is done by the Government of Pakistan through Evacuee Trust Property Board and Government of Punjab. Following Development Works have also been carried out recently:
i. Complete renovation of Gurdwara Sahib.
ii. Construction of 50 prefabricated huts.
iii. Construction of toilet blocks for ladies and gents.
iv. Re-carpetting of the entire road leading to the Gurdwara Sahib.

7. Peshawar

Peshawar, perhaps one of the most ancient amongst the living cities of Pakistan, sits on the right bank of the old Bara River, a tributary of the Kabul, and has stood guard at the eastern mouth of the famous Khyber Pass, hardly 15 kilometres away. It is the capital of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa (erstwhile North West Frontier) Province of Pakistan.
Bacha Khan International serves the city and the province as the main international airport in the region. The city is linked to other national and international destinations through Motorway (M-1), Karakoram Highway (KKH) and Grand Trunk Road. In the city, there are different and varied modes of local travel including coaches, buses, auto rickshaws, yellow cabs and black taxis and the traditional tonga – the horse-driven cart.

i. Gurdwara Bhai Joga Singh


Within the locality of the residential quarters of Namakmandi there is a Sikh Gurdwara known after Bhai Jogan Shah (also known as Bhai Joga Singh). He was the son of Bhai Gurmukh Singh of Peshawar, who had embraced Sikhism by tasting Amrit from Kalghidhar Patshah (Guru Gobind Singh Ji). Sat Gur took Bhai Joga as his godson and was so fond of him that he was always kept in his presence. At the request of Bhai Gurmukh, he allowed him to go to Peshawar for his marriage. He, however, wanted to test his devotion and ordered another disciple to follow him with a proclamation, which was to be delivered to Joga after the marriage rites were completed. The note contained an order for him to immediately proceed to Anandpur Sahib on seeing it. The note, however, was delivered to him during the performance of marriage rite, called Lawan in Sikhism. On this, Joga left abruptly without completing the ceremonies, which were carried out to the end by giving the remaining Lawan to his belt.
While on the way, a thought entered his mind that there could be none else, who would submit to the will of Sat Gur as much as he did. When he reached Hoshiarpur, he was overwhelmed by his lust and fell for the beauty of a damsel, who was a prostitute. However, Kalghidar Patshah disguised himself as a mace-bearer guarding the prostitute’s house saved him from falling into any sin. While reaching the destination he sought the forgiveness for his folly from the Guru Sahib, which was granted. The Gurdwara is a beautiful building consisting of three storeys. The Prakash of Guru Granth Sahib takes place and local and foreign Sangats (assemblies) meet daily. There is also a Punjabi school for the Sikh children, which also imparts secular education in addition to the Sikh religious education.