Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is the site of the ancient region of Gandhara, including the ruins of the Gandharan capital of Pushkalavati (located near modern-day Charsadda). The region’s history is characterized by frequent invasions by various empires, largely due to its geographical proximity to the historically important Khyber Pass.
The traditional dress of Peshawar and other parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan is the khalqa (gown) which opens at the front or shirt which does not open at the front, and the Peshawari shalwar which is very loose down to the ankles.
Rice dishes and kebabs feature prominently in Pashtun cuisine. Lamb is eaten more often in Pashtun cuisine than any other Pakistani cuisines. Rice haleem, chapli kabab, tika, and mutton karahi are the most famous dishes. Historical variations include Peshawari cuisine. The Pashtun and Balochi cuisines are traditionally non-spicy.
The dominant language of the Province is Pashto, which belongs to the Irani branch of the Aryan family of languages. It has two main dialects: Pakhto and Pashto.